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Vocabulary Exercises: Verbs
Infinitives and gerunds are called verbals; they are derived from verbs but do not function as verbs.
You can learn how English verbs work in this book: English Verb Drills
Infinitives are the base form of a verb that is preceded by the particle word to: to run, to sing, to play, and so on.
An infinitive may function as a subject, a direct object, a subject complement, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence.
When an infinitive is used as the subject of a sentence, it is functioning as a noun.
Infinitive as Subject
To wait makes me angry.
To run is great exercise.
Noun as Subject
Your laziness makes me angry.
A brisk walk is great exercise.
An infinitive can be used as any of the following:
• The direct object of a sentence
I always liked to study.
Everyone wanted to participate.
• The subject complement of a sentence
Her greatest joy is to dance.
Robert’s wish was to fly.
• An adjective
No one had the courage to disagree.
They receive a message to surrender.
• An adverb
We must practice to win.
You cannot just think to understand.
In the provided, write the letter S if the infinitive in bold is used as the subject of the sentence. Write the letter D if it is used as the direct object. Write the letter C if it is used as the subject complement. Write the letters AJ if it is used as an adjective. Write the letters AV if it is used as an adverb. Use CAPITAL LETTERS in your answer.
1. John never liked to sing.
2. Why do you want to leave?
3. You have to study to learn.
4. The best exercise to me is to jog.
5. To play video games can be a waste of time.
6. To fall in love can be dangerous.
7. She always hated to gossip.
8. They get the command to attack.
9. That is a cruel thing to do.
10. To lie was his own choice.
Infinitives are used very commonly in infinitive phrases. That is, they are combined with other elements such as adverbs, objects, or prepositional phrases. Infinitive phrases are used in the same way as individual infinitives. For example:
To smoke anywhere in this building is prohibited. (subject)
Bill agreed to give me a ride to work. (direct object)
There are several transitive verbs that can be followed by infinitive phrases. Some of the most commonly used are:
agree begin continue decide fail hesitate hope intend learn neglect offer plan prefer pretend promise refuse remember start try
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